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#2764700 - 02/22/12 11:49 AM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: Beekeeper]
Mtn Hunter
4 Point


Registered: 01/02/12
Posts: 115
Loc: TN

Offline
Just saw this on WBIR's site about this topic. Not sure if this link will work.

http://www.wbir.com/news/article/206991/...ws%7Cbc%7Clarge

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#2766887 - 02/24/12 09:19 AM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: Mtn Hunter]
ballfan
Button


Registered: 11/07/11
Posts: 10
Loc: TN, Sumner Co

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I for one support the bill. If you are so concerned about CWD than where were you during the Elk release or restocking of Whitetail deer. Fact: Deer came from the states of Maryland, Michigan, Wisconsin, Texas, Virginia, Oklahoma and North Carolina. Elk came from Alberta Canada, Utah and another source for elk from the Elk Enclosure at LBL. And those States with CWD are Maryland, Wisconsin, Virginia and Alberta Canada. Those genetics are already here. If the TWRA can find disease free Elk to release into the wild than why canít we find disease free Deer? Or should I say WHITETAIL? Because you can already farm and hunt any other deer in TN. Including Elk!

Deer farmers are under strict regulations. If any animal test positive for CWD on a farm it is shut down for five years and should be. Even if they are clear they donít allow any other deer in or out for years. Look at the stats. CWD is not our biggest issue. What about Hemorrhagic Disease (Blue Tongue Disease) or Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD).

Question, How many cases of CWD were reported in the entire country last year? And of that number how many were Whitetail Deer vs. Elk? And of that, what was the percentage of the population infected? Less than 1%? Less than Ĺ of 1%? More like 0.00001 %. I am concerned about my Deer herd, but its Hemorrhagic Disease (Blue Tongue Disease) or Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD). How many deer did you loose on your property in 2010. I lost something like 60% of our herd. This is just like all the other loons in the nation. If I cry loud enough, it will become a epidemic! And this is not a epidemic!

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#2767795 - 02/25/12 10:41 AM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: ballfan]
Pursuit Hunter
8 Point


Registered: 10/01/08
Posts: 2086
Loc: Way out there

Offline
Ball fan. That argument sounds familiar. You and Frank must be reading the same script.
_________________________
One does not hunt in order to kill; on the contrary, one kills in order to have hunted - Jose Ortega y Gasset

http://www.pursuithunting.com
http://www.pursuitland.com

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#2768183 - 02/26/12 12:01 AM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: ballfan]
Monty
6 Point


Registered: 03/10/07
Posts: 509
Loc: Bedford Co.

Offline
Ballfan

When were the w-t deer and elk restorations done? The elk from Canada were monitored better than most elk on captive farms at the time. When the concerns about CWD and it's spread into new areas became more prevalent, TWRA stopped importing elk.

You're point would be well taken, if the time-lines for both re-introduction and w-t deer farming were today. CWD is continuing to spread across the U.S. Just last month two wild deer tested positive in Missouri in the same area where captive deer were twice before reported positive. And who gets stuck paying for those captive animals when they're euthanized? The clean-up on infected farms? The killing of wild w-t deer in 5+ mile radius around these facilities? Taxpayers and or wildlife agencies. The deer farmers get their money one way or the other - not a bad business risk at all.

There probably won't be much chance of reaching agreement on this issue considering the motivations of the two groups: one is a business looking at using w-t deer as a commodity; the other is a group of sportsmen and women who see the w-t deer as a wildlife resource. I seriously doubt these two groups will agree that farming w-t deer in pens to be shot as a "trophy," collect urine and semen for sale, and saw off velvet antlers as an aphrodisiac in traditional oriental medicines is a good use of a game animal.

Finally, many see the w-t deer farming initiative in the same light as the ostrich farming business several years ago. Those who got in early made money - those buying the birds later didn't do so well. It didn't take long to saturate that market. In some ways, these captive cervid farms fall into a similar pattern - opening new markets in states like Tennessee is great for those already in the business, but may not be so great for those folks getting in on the tail end.


Edited by Monty (02/26/12 12:03 AM)
_________________________
"What is man without the beasts? For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected." (Chief Seattle)

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#2768564 - 02/26/12 07:04 PM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: Monty]
TNlandowner
6 Point


Registered: 03/28/06
Posts: 568
Loc: Carroll County

Offline
Rep. Terri Lynn Weaver shared this article with me yesterday:

"NADeFA News
Common Issues From Legislative Hearings Around The Country.
I have been working with Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and New Jersey to expand deer farming and hunting ranches within those states. There also is legislation in West Virginia to move under the Department of Agriculture and allow importation. Indiana has legislation to clear up the laws regulating hunting ranches and expand that industry. Ohio has legislation to move the industry from under the Department of Natural Resources over to the Department of Agriculture. Missouri is working to remove an old regulation that has surfaced requiring TB testing for movement within the state. There are three common issues that I always run into and I thought it might be beneficial if our producers had some of the facts so they could dispel a lot of the misinformation when they hear it.
Risk of importing Brucellosis? - "There has never been a whitetail diagnosed with Brucellosis". The Greater Yellowstone Area is a reservoir for Brucellosis - There are No whitetail farmers in Wyoming, Idaho or the GYA of Montana. The tests for Brucellosis are all very accurate in Cervids. Requiring all whitetails to be from a Brucellosis Certified Free herd or individually tested before importation would be a lot less risky than allowing cattle to be imported with "no" test under state free status.
Risk of importing Tuberculosis? - There has never been TB in a breeding herd of a whitetail deer farmer. There have only been two states with TB in whitetail deer. Minnesota had the southwestern strain pass from the cattle industry to "wild" whitetails in a small area in the Northwest corner of the state. There were no whitetail deer farmers in the TB Zone. The cattle have regained their TB free status and there has not been a positive wild deer found in the last two years of surveillance. Michigan has its own unique strain of TB, which went from cattle to wild whitetail deer and then years later back to the cattle industry as well as three hunting ranches that are located inside the TB Zone. These hunting ranches were allowed to fence in wild deer years earlier, after the discovery of TB they were depopulated and cleaned up. Michigan requires all of their cervid herds to whole herd TB test and there has never been TB found in a breeding herd and no live animals ever left the three hunting ranches. There has been TB found in elk, red deer and fallow deer with a strain referred to as the Cervid Strain. This strain has also been found in cattle in Nebraska, South Dakota, Indiana and Kentucky. The cattle and cervids found with this strain have all been depopulated. There has never been a whitetail deer found with the "cervid strain" in the wild or farmed deer industry. The Code of Federal Regulations requires all cervids moved interstate to be from Accredited herds or from a whole herd test followed up by an individual test. Cervids are not allowed to move on State TB Free Status.
Risk of importing CWD? - Thankfully there have only been a small handful of whitetails herds that have been found with CWD in the farmed industry (only 7 deer on 7 farms since 2006). Another important fact to note would be that in all of these cases none of the deer were brought in from another herd and that CWD has never been traced back to movement from a whitetail farm that has been monitoring for more than 5 years. As a matter of fact, most of the CWD infections in the whitetail farming industry have been attributed to movement of wild cervids for taxidermy or improper carcass disposal of wild cervids from CWD zones out west. Research has proven the incubation period for whitetails to be fairly short and the maximum period a whitetail has ever lived in a CWD research environment is 32 months. The industry standard imposed by all states that have an established whitetail breeding industry is 5 years of monitoring for interstate commerce which is almost double the amount of time a whitetail has ever lived with CWD. While there are a few states that started testing in 1998, the majority of the industry started monitoring in 2002 which gives 10 or more years of surveillance of all deaths over 12 months of age. If you look at the numbers you can see that science based regulations have controlled CWD in the breeding industry.
There is a firm connection to environmental contamination and movement of CWD and dead deer and elk from the wild. I would suggest that everyone check with their state to makes sure they have implemented restrictions for hunters and taxidermists transporting carcass parts from cervids killed in the wild.
The Cervid industry supports "science based regulated trade". There are risks when moving any animal in commerce and one of the biggest threats to animal agriculture has proven to be humans that travel from one farm to another or migrant workers that are infected with TB. We are not asking for any waivers or exemptions when we move our animals. There are proven and established regulations and guidelines that are science based, and all herds that meet these requirements should be treated fairly and equally and allowed to do commerce.

Shawn Schafer
Executive Director
North American Deer Farmers Association
651-212-1315
schafer@nadefa.org"
_________________________
Never be afraid to lead for the right cause.

"Whom shall I send, and who will go for Us?" Then I said, "Here am I. Send me!"

Isaiah 6:8

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#2768586 - 02/26/12 07:27 PM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: TNlandowner]
Beekeeper
Good ol' Boys "Team Buckcreek"
16 Point


Registered: 08/26/09
Posts: 12232
Loc: McMinn Co. Tennessee

Offline
 Originally Posted By: TNlandowner
Rep. Terri Lynn Weaver shared this article with me yesterday:

"NADeFA News
Common Issues From Legislative Hearings Around The Country.
I have been working with Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and New Jersey to expand deer farming and hunting ranches within those states. There also is legislation in West Virginia to move under the Department of Agriculture and allow importation. Indiana has legislation to clear up the laws regulating hunting ranches and expand that industry. Ohio has legislation to move the industry from under the Department of Natural Resources over to the Department of Agriculture. Missouri is working to remove an old regulation that has surfaced requiring TB testing for movement within the state. There are three common issues that I always run into and I thought it might be beneficial if our producers had some of the facts so they could dispel a lot of the misinformation when they hear it.
Risk of importing Brucellosis? - "There has never been a whitetail diagnosed with Brucellosis". The Greater Yellowstone Area is a reservoir for Brucellosis - There are No whitetail farmers in Wyoming, Idaho or the GYA of Montana. The tests for Brucellosis are all very accurate in Cervids. Requiring all whitetails to be from a Brucellosis Certified Free herd or individually tested before importation would be a lot less risky than allowing cattle to be imported with "no" test under state free status.
Risk of importing Tuberculosis? - There has never been TB in a breeding herd of a whitetail deer farmer. There have only been two states with TB in whitetail deer. Minnesota had the southwestern strain pass from the cattle industry to "wild" whitetails in a small area in the Northwest corner of the state. There were no whitetail deer farmers in the TB Zone. The cattle have regained their TB free status and there has not been a positive wild deer found in the last two years of surveillance. Michigan has its own unique strain of TB, which went from cattle to wild whitetail deer and then years later back to the cattle industry as well as three hunting ranches that are located inside the TB Zone. These hunting ranches were allowed to fence in wild deer years earlier, after the discovery of TB they were depopulated and cleaned up. Michigan requires all of their cervid herds to whole herd TB test and there has never been TB found in a breeding herd and no live animals ever left the three hunting ranches. There has been TB found in elk, red deer and fallow deer with a strain referred to as the Cervid Strain. This strain has also been found in cattle in Nebraska, South Dakota, Indiana and Kentucky. The cattle and cervids found with this strain have all been depopulated. There has never been a whitetail deer found with the "cervid strain" in the wild or farmed deer industry. The Code of Federal Regulations requires all cervids moved interstate to be from Accredited herds or from a whole herd test followed up by an individual test. Cervids are not allowed to move on State TB Free Status.
Risk of importing CWD? - Thankfully there have only been a small handful of whitetails herds that have been found with CWD in the farmed industry (only 7 deer on 7 farms since 2006). Another important fact to note would be that in all of these cases none of the deer were brought in from another herd and that CWD has never been traced back to movement from a whitetail farm that has been monitoring for more than 5 years. As a matter of fact, most of the CWD infections in the whitetail farming industry have been attributed to movement of wild cervids for taxidermy or improper carcass disposal of wild cervids from CWD zones out west. Research has proven the incubation period for whitetails to be fairly short and the maximum period a whitetail has ever lived in a CWD research environment is 32 months. The industry standard imposed by all states that have an established whitetail breeding industry is 5 years of monitoring for interstate commerce which is almost double the amount of time a whitetail has ever lived with CWD. While there are a few states that started testing in 1998, the majority of the industry started monitoring in 2002 which gives 10 or more years of surveillance of all deaths over 12 months of age. If you look at the numbers you can see that science based regulations have controlled CWD in the breeding industry.
There is a firm connection to environmental contamination and movement of CWD and dead deer and elk from the wild. I would suggest that everyone check with their state to makes sure they have implemented restrictions for hunters and taxidermists transporting carcass parts from cervids killed in the wild.
The Cervid industry supports "science based regulated trade". There are risks when moving any animal in commerce and one of the biggest threats to animal agriculture has proven to be humans that travel from one farm to another or migrant workers that are infected with TB. We are not asking for any waivers or exemptions when we move our animals. There are proven and established regulations and guidelines that are science based, and all herds that meet these requirements should be treated fairly and equally and allowed to do commerce.

Shawn Schafer
Executive Director
North American Deer Farmers Association
651-212-1315
schafer@nadefa.org"


I got the same letter. This is what I sent back:

The problem with this is that it is a self serving document. The folks that breed deer need to expand their market into new areas to remain viable. Check the fiscal report on Michigan and their deer farming.

Until there is a live animal test that is 99% + accurate the danger from CWD is a very real issue.

Has anyone done a cost benefit analysis on deer farming in the state of Tennessee? I have looked at it and there seems to be very little chance that a small time farmer or even a middle sized farm could be profitable in this market without the high fenced hunting of these animals. The high fenced hunting is something that the sponsors of this bill say will not happen.

The more you look at this legislation, and the deer farming industry as a whole, the more it looks like a pyramid scheme. The folks that have a lot of money invested in this type of operation have realized that they must sell supplies at an inflated cost to new farmers to remain in business.

This would also carry more weight if it came from someone that had no interest or intention of going into the deer farming business. Everyone that votes for this bill will see their opponents receiving financial contributions and campaign help from the hunters in this state.

Sincerely,

XXXXXXXXXX
_________________________
Democracy is two wolves and a lamb voting on what to have for lunch. Liberty is a well-armed lamb contesting the vote.
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)




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#2768990 - 02/27/12 09:06 AM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: Beekeeper]
Monty
6 Point


Registered: 03/10/07
Posts: 509
Loc: Bedford Co.

Offline
 Originally Posted By: Beekeeper
 Originally Posted By: TNlandowner
Rep. Terri Lynn Weaver shared this article with me yesterday:

"NADeFA News
Common Issues From Legislative Hearings Around The Country.
I have been working with Mississippi, Tennessee, Georgia, North Carolina and New Jersey to expand deer farming and hunting ranches within those states. There also is legislation in West Virginia to move under the Department of Agriculture and allow importation. Indiana has legislation to clear up the laws regulating hunting ranches and expand that industry. Ohio has legislation to move the industry from under the Department of Natural Resources over to the Department of Agriculture. Missouri is working to remove an old regulation that has surfaced requiring TB testing for movement within the state. There are three common issues that I always run into and I thought it might be beneficial if our producers had some of the facts so they could dispel a lot of the misinformation when they hear it.
Risk of importing Brucellosis? - "There has never been a whitetail diagnosed with Brucellosis". The Greater Yellowstone Area is a reservoir for Brucellosis - There are No whitetail farmers in Wyoming, Idaho or the GYA of Montana. The tests for Brucellosis are all very accurate in Cervids. Requiring all whitetails to be from a Brucellosis Certified Free herd or individually tested before importation would be a lot less risky than allowing cattle to be imported with "no" test under state free status.
Risk of importing Tuberculosis? - There has never been TB in a breeding herd of a whitetail deer farmer. There have only been two states with TB in whitetail deer. Minnesota had the southwestern strain pass from the cattle industry to "wild" whitetails in a small area in the Northwest corner of the state. There were no whitetail deer farmers in the TB Zone. The cattle have regained their TB free status and there has not been a positive wild deer found in the last two years of surveillance. Michigan has its own unique strain of TB, which went from cattle to wild whitetail deer and then years later back to the cattle industry as well as three hunting ranches that are located inside the TB Zone. These hunting ranches were allowed to fence in wild deer years earlier, after the discovery of TB they were depopulated and cleaned up. Michigan requires all of their cervid herds to whole herd TB test and there has never been TB found in a breeding herd and no live animals ever left the three hunting ranches. There has been TB found in elk, red deer and fallow deer with a strain referred to as the Cervid Strain. This strain has also been found in cattle in Nebraska, South Dakota, Indiana and Kentucky. The cattle and cervids found with this strain have all been depopulated. There has never been a whitetail deer found with the "cervid strain" in the wild or farmed deer industry. The Code of Federal Regulations requires all cervids moved interstate to be from Accredited herds or from a whole herd test followed up by an individual test. Cervids are not allowed to move on State TB Free Status.
Risk of importing CWD? - Thankfully there have only been a small handful of whitetails herds that have been found with CWD in the farmed industry (only 7 deer on 7 farms since 2006). Another important fact to note would be that in all of these cases none of the deer were brought in from another herd and that CWD has never been traced back to movement from a whitetail farm that has been monitoring for more than 5 years. As a matter of fact, most of the CWD infections in the whitetail farming industry have been attributed to movement of wild cervids for taxidermy or improper carcass disposal of wild cervids from CWD zones out west. Research has proven the incubation period for whitetails to be fairly short and the maximum period a whitetail has ever lived in a CWD research environment is 32 months. The industry standard imposed by all states that have an established whitetail breeding industry is 5 years of monitoring for interstate commerce which is almost double the amount of time a whitetail has ever lived with CWD. While there are a few states that started testing in 1998, the majority of the industry started monitoring in 2002 which gives 10 or more years of surveillance of all deaths over 12 months of age. If you look at the numbers you can see that science based regulations have controlled CWD in the breeding industry.
There is a firm connection to environmental contamination and movement of CWD and dead deer and elk from the wild. I would suggest that everyone check with their state to makes sure they have implemented restrictions for hunters and taxidermists transporting carcass parts from cervids killed in the wild.
The Cervid industry supports "science based regulated trade". There are risks when moving any animal in commerce and one of the biggest threats to animal agriculture has proven to be humans that travel from one farm to another or migrant workers that are infected with TB. We are not asking for any waivers or exemptions when we move our animals. There are proven and established regulations and guidelines that are science based, and all herds that meet these requirements should be treated fairly and equally and allowed to do commerce.

Shawn Schafer
Executive Director
North American Deer Farmers Association
651-212-1315
schafer@nadefa.org"


I got the same letter. This is what I sent back:

The problem with this is that it is a self serving document. The folks that breed deer need to expand their market into new areas to remain viable. Check the fiscal report on Michigan and their deer farming.

Until there is a live animal test that is 99% + accurate the danger from CWD is a very real issue.

Has anyone done a cost benefit analysis on deer farming in the state of Tennessee? I have looked at it and there seems to be very little chance that a small time farmer or even a middle sized farm could be profitable in this market without the high fenced hunting of these animals. The high fenced hunting is something that the sponsors of this bill say will not happen.

The more you look at this legislation, and the deer farming industry as a whole, the more it looks like a pyramid scheme. The folks that have a lot of money invested in this type of operation have realized that they must sell supplies at an inflated cost to new farmers to remain in business.

This would also carry more weight if it came from someone that had no interest or intention of going into the deer farming business. Everyone that votes for this bill will see their opponents receiving financial contributions and campaign help from the hunters in this state.

Sincerely,

XXXXXXXXXX


Good points. True that the Assoc's information is self-serving, but that might not an influential argument for those favoring the business - being fair and objective, it is persuasive information.

Something some of you folks may have seen, but I haven't yet, is just how much "cleaning up" one of these infected farms actually cost$ taxpayers and/or license holders. I imagine most state ag depts or wildlife agency's are required to reimburse the operators for all of the animals exterminated on the facility following a CWD infection outbreak. In addition to the reimbursement expenses, there are the costs associated with state personnel's costs for doing the extermination and disposals, CWD testing, and additional follow-up monitoring. Then comes the costs to taxpayers and/or license holders for any extermination and testing done on wild deer in a given radius around the infected facility. What about restoration costs to the agency for loss of these wild animals? What about the costs paid out of the public's pockets if owner just walks away from an infected piece of property and the state has to buy the facility and maintain fencing to protect surrounding wild herds?

Seems to me the supporters of this questionable business keep touting all the economic bennies it'll bring to a "few" rural area operators - seems reasonable that we might want to let folks know how much the "rest of the story" costs taxpayers/license holders. The operator gains either way his/her business goes; not a bad deal, it seems to me.
_________________________
"What is man without the beasts? For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected." (Chief Seattle)

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#2770046 - 02/28/12 11:04 AM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: Monty]
ballfan
Button


Registered: 11/07/11
Posts: 10
Loc: TN, Sumner Co

Offline
Beekeeper: You stated, Until there is a live animal test that is 99% + accurate the danger from CWD is a very real issue.

A dot blot ELISA test for CWD, developed by VMRD, Inc., was licensed for CWD testing.

United States Department of Agriculture licensed a CWD dot plot (ELISA) test developed by VMRD, Inc. The test analyzes retropharyngeal lymph node samples and has a turnaround time of approximately 24 hours.

Did the Elk released test 99% free?

You didnít answer my question about the percent of Elk vs Deer. What percent Elk have tested positive vs deer. How many Deer farms exists vs Elk farms?

Thatís my point! As a whole, the threat that Elk carrying the disease vs Deer having or carrying it far exceeds that of Deer. Yet the TWRA found Elk suitable or up to their standards. Quote: All elk brought into Tennessee for release go through strict disease testing prior to release. This testing is much more thorough than that required for bringing captive elk into Tennessee. Also, the elk brought into Tennessee will come from areas where health surveillance has been ongoing for several years with no history of significant disease. All of these precautions will greatly minimize the risk of any diseases being introduced into the state.

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#2770642 - 02/28/12 09:58 PM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: ballfan]
Monty
6 Point


Registered: 03/10/07
Posts: 509
Loc: Bedford Co.

Offline
 Originally Posted By: ballfan
Beekeeper: You stated, Until there is a live animal test that is 99% + accurate the danger from CWD is a very real issue.

A dot blot ELISA test for CWD, developed by VMRD, Inc., was licensed for CWD testing.

United States Department of Agriculture licensed a CWD dot plot (ELISA) test developed by VMRD, Inc. The test analyzes retropharyngeal lymph node samples and has a turnaround time of approximately 24 hours.

Did the Elk released test 99% free?

You didnít answer my question about the percent of Elk vs Deer. What percent Elk have tested positive vs deer. How many Deer farms exists vs Elk farms?

Thatís my point! As a whole, the threat that Elk carrying the disease vs Deer having or carrying it far exceeds that of Deer. Yet the TWRA found Elk suitable or up to their standards. Quote: All elk brought into Tennessee for release go through strict disease testing prior to release. This testing is much more thorough than that required for bringing captive elk into Tennessee. Also, the elk brought into Tennessee will come from areas where health surveillance has been ongoing for several years with no history of significant disease. All of these precautions will greatly minimize the risk of any diseases being introduced into the state.


How many captive farms have BOTH w-t deer and elk? How many w-t deer are now on farms where only w-t deer are present, but some were transported to where they now are from a farm with elk? This Q&A game isn't worth the effort because no one really knows the answers.

Regardless of what USDA or any other group claims or certifies as "licensed," do you disagree that a test with 99% reliability provides better assurance that an animal is likely CWD free than whatever else is out there today?

Argue all you want. The bottom-line is the risks are not worth the minor gain - even Niceley has said his bill with create a "few jobs." A few jobs aren't worth the risk - millions in potential losses footed by us taxpayers, while the owners get paid for their stock no matter who kills them - a shooter in a pen wanting their "trophy" mount, or a government official who is tasked with eliminating a herd because of CWD infection.
_________________________
"What is man without the beasts? For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected." (Chief Seattle)

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#2771509 - 02/29/12 05:17 PM Re: deer farming vote postponed [Re: Monty]
Monty
6 Point


Registered: 03/10/07
Posts: 509
Loc: Bedford Co.

Offline
How about this abstract from a current CDC publication -

Abstract
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a fatal, transmissible prion disease that affects captive and free-ranging deer, elk, and moose. Although the zoonotic potential of CWD is considered low, identification of multiple CWD strains and the potential for agent evolution upon serial passage hinders a definitive conclusion. Surveillance for CWD in free-ranging populations has documented a continual geographic spread of the disease throughout North America. CWD prions are shed from clinically and preclinically affected hosts, and CWD transmission is mediated at least in part by the environment, perhaps by soil. Much remains unknown, including the sites and mechanisms of prion uptake in the naive host. There are no therapeutics or effective eradication measures for CWD-endemic populations. Continued surveillance and research of CWD and its effects on cervid ecosystems is vital for controlling the long-term consequences of this emerging disease.
_________________________
"What is man without the beasts? For whatever happens to the beasts, soon happens to man. All things are connected." (Chief Seattle)

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